Some of them are the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration or "IAST system" "Indian languages Transliteration" or ITRANS (uses upper case alphabets suited for ASCII keyboards), and the extension of IAST intended for non-Sanskrit languages of the Indian region called the National Library at Kolkata romanisation. When following a ত tô that is already part of a conjunct with প pô, ন nô or স sô, it is fused with the ত to resemble ও o: ন্তু ntu স্তু stu প্তু ptu. Since the inherent vowel is assumed and not written, most letters' names look identical to the letter itself (the name of the letter ঘ is itself ghô, not gh). It is a combination of জ ǰô and ঞ ñô but it is not pronounced "ǰñô" or "jnô". The Bengali script is however less blocky and presents a more sinuous shape. The size of a consonant conjunct, regardless of its complexity, is deliberately maintained the same as that of a single consonant grapheme, so that diacritic vowel forms can be attached to it without any distortion. The Bengali script has ten numerical digits (graphemes or symbols indicating the numbers from 0 to 9). Numbers larger than 9 are written in Bengali using a positional base 10 numeral system (the decimal system). These graphemes serve an etymological function, however, in preserving the original Sanskrit spelling in tôtsômô Bengali words (words … A period or dot is used to denote the decimal separator, which separates the integral and the fractional parts of a decimal number. When following র rô, and in many fonts also following the variant রফলা. Many conjuncts represent Sanskrit sounds that were lost centuries before modern Bengali was ever spoken as in জ্ঞ. The table below shows the vowels present in the modern (since the late nineteenth century) inventory of the Bengali alphabet: Consonant letters are called ব্যঞ্জনবর্ণ bænjônbôrnô "consonant letter" in Bengali. It is one of the most widely adopted writing system in the world (used by over 265 million people). Some consonants have forms that are used regularly but only within conjuncts. Clusters of up to four consonants can be orthographically represented as a typographic ligature called a consonant conjunct (Bengali: যুক্তাক্ষর/যুক্তবর্ণ juktakkhôr/juktôbôrnô or more specifically যুক্তব্যঞ্জন). As the first member of a conjunct, or when at the end of a word and followed by no vowel, ত tô can appear as. Unlike in western scripts (Latin, Cyrillic, etc.) Theoretically, four-consonant conjuncts can also be created, as in র rô + স sô + ট ṭô + র rô = র্স্ট্র rsṭrô, but they are not found in native words. Used in spellings only if they were adopted from Sanskrit and has two different pronunciations depending on the location of the consonant it is used with, Sign. Sometimes, a hyphen is used for the same purpose (as in পা-টা, an alternative of পাʼটা). This page was last edited on 14 October 2020, at 12:11. Used at the beginning of texts as an invocation, There are two graphemes for the vowel sound, When a vowel sound occurs syllable-initially or when it follows another vowel, it is written using a distinct letter. While efforts at standardising the alphabet for the Bengali language continue in such notable centres as the Bangla Academy at Dhaka (Bangladesh) and the Pôshchimbônggô Bangla Akademi at Kolkata (West Bengal, India), it is still not quite uniform yet, as many people continue to use various archaic forms of letters, resulting in concurrent forms for the same sounds. In other words, leftwards from the decimal separator, the first grouping consists of three digits, and the subsequent groupings always consist of two digits. Graphemes within a word are also evenly spaced, but that spacing is much narrower than the spacing between words. For example, adding ল lô underneath শ shô in Bengali creates the conjunct শ্ল, which is not pronounced shlô but slô in Bengali. George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bengali language Movement (North Dinajpur), International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, http://www.omniglot.com/writing/bengali.htm, "Learning International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration", "ITRANS – Indian Language Transliteration Package", "Orthography of Asiatick Words in Roman Letters", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bengali_alphabet&oldid=983470745, Articles containing Bengali-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2015, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Special character or sign.
When following গ gô or শ shô, it takes on a variant form resembling the final tail of ও o: গু gu শু shu.
Sanskrit is well-standardized because the speaking community is relatively small, and, "(Gaudi), in turn, gave rise to the modern eastern scripts, namely, Bengali-Assamese, Oriya, and Maithili, which became clearly differentiated around the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries." Some consonants are abbreviated when appearing in conjuncts and lose part of their basic shape. When preceded by হ hô, ন nô appears as a curl to the right: হ্ন "hnô". When preceded by the abbreviated form of ঞ ñô, চ chô takes the shape of ব bô: ঞ্চ ñchô. In Japanese, there is some debate as to whether to accent certain distinctions, such as Tōhoku vs Tohoku.
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