But that day was different. October 28 – Memorial Day of Camilio Cienfuegos. The aim of the assembly was to provide juridical union and to become better organized. War of Independence Anniversary is one of the major national holidays in Cuba. An inquiry found that the explosion was caused by a mine and, although the inquiry report did not specifically name them, Spain was thought to be responsible for the explosion. The first attempt at revolution took place in 1791, lead by José Antonio Aponte, however it failed and over the next 30 years no other serious uprisings occurred, although the ideal of freedom was not forgotten. Though this first war of independence ended with surrender to the Spanish in May 1878, in the longer term it proved to a key event in Cuba's struggle for independence from Spain, which finally came in December 1898. The imposition of more taxes and trade restrictions prodded the economically distressed Cubans in 1895 to launch the Cuban War of Independence, a resumption of the earlier struggle. Blas Villate, count of Valmaseda and Valeriano Weyler, known as the Weyler the Butcher, would be remembered forever as ruthless and cruel men executed a huge number of captured farmers and families of mambises (Cuban independence movement freedom fighters) or sent them to concentration camps (reconcentration policy) where some say tht 200,000 died, increasing the nationalist sentiment and incresing the hate felt towards Spain. Dissatisfied with the corrupt and inefficient Spanish administration, lack of political representation, and high taxes, Cubans in the eastern provinces united under the wealthy planter Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, whose declaration of independence in October 1868, the Grito de Yara (“Cry of Yara”), signaled the beginning of the Ten Years’ War, in which 200,000 lives were lost. Feeling no loyalty to this new regime, this galvanized the independence movement in many Spanish colonies in South America and Central America. Spain's attempt to destroy the insurrection was frustratred when the Third Carlist war broke out, but it ended and more troops were sent to Cuba. Independence Day is a public holiday in Cuba observed on 10th October. 1 January - Liberation Day A commemoration of Fidel Castro's victory in the Cuban Revolution of 1959. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Cuban-Independence-Movement, United States History - Cuban Fight for Independence. Other promised reforms, however, never materialized. In 1866 Cuban representatives travelled to Spain to meet in Madrid representatives of the Spanish Government, as their sugar industry needed strong investments to modernise their plants. They managed to conquer Cárdenas, but they did not achieve popular support and had to abandon the island. On Cuban Independence Day, I extend my warm regards and best wishes to the people of Cuba. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In the same day the rebels were defeated and Cespedes retreated to his estate along with some of his men. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cépedes was killed by Spanish troops in 1874. People in the United…, Cuba, country of the West Indies, the largest single island of the archipelago, and one of the more-influential states of the Caribbean region. It began with the unsuccessful Ten Years’ War (Guerra de los Diez Años; 1868–78) and culminated in the U.S. intervention that ended the Spanish colonial presence in the Americas (see Spanish-American War). This holiday is sometimes called Independence Day and Beginning of the War of Independence, but in fact these two names are not correct. October 10 - Anniversary of the begening of the Independence War. Your democratic system was overthrown by a military dictator at the middle of the last century. Cuba remained loyal to Spain, but as the century progressed, so did the enthusiasm for independence and an increasing resentment against the Spanish administration that was felt to be corrupt and repressive.
Céspedes was elected President. On Cuban Independence Day, I extend my warm regards and best wishes to the people of Cuba. As early as 1790 the idea of independence was popular in Cuba, one the Spanish colonies, in some groups. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. For quite a while nobody was able to declare themselves the victor, however the scales would later tip to Spain's side.
The Spanish course of action after an attempt to reach an agreement with the rebel forces failed, was a cruel war with the aim of complete annihilation and took extreme measures such as the execution of males over 15 years old found outside their plantations or homes without justification, rebels who were caught would be executed right away and many other cruel enactments.
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