Both Great Britain and France had deep money markets, Britain in particular, which were willing and able to buy short or medium-term government bills in large quantities. ): The Economics of World War I, New York 2005, p. 62, The huge volume of new paper currency, moreover, still had to be legally covered by gold reserves held at the Reichsbank. With its gold depleted, the German government attempted to buy foreign currency with German currency, equivalent to selling German currency in exchange for payment in foreign currency, but the resulting increase in the supply of German marks on the market caused the German mark to fall rapidly in value, which greatly increased the number of marks needed to buy more foreign currency. The loan bureau notes issued by federal authorities were nothing more than paper notes backed by the authority of the state. The comments below have not been moderated. Great Britain, France and Germany all sold off privately owned foreign assets to help pay for their imports. , By contrast, the deep money markets of Great Britain and France paid dividends because they enabled their governments to place large quantities of short-term debt, and thereby help limit the growth in the money supply. The hyperinflation crisis led prominent economists and politicians to seek a means to stabilize German currency. After Germany failed to pay France an installment of reparations on time in late 1922, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr valley, Germany's main industrial region, in January 1923. If they stopped inflation, there would be immediate bankruptcies, unemployment, strikes, hunger, violence, collapse of civil order, insurrection and possibly even revolution. The country gradually spiralled into a full-blown economic catastrophe that, by November 1923, had so degraded the German Mark that it took 200 billion of them to buy a loaf of bread.
At first German financial authorities like Karl Helfferich (1872-1924), finance minister from 1915 to 1916, decided not to pursue higher taxation in the belief that the war would be a short one. If, however, loan bureau notes are counted not as specie, but as paper notes, these figures change significantly. Yet the Reichsbank’s gold reserves were small in comparison with those of France, giving it less flexibility during financial crises.  Thus, the exchange rate of the mark against the US dollar steadily devalued from 4.2 to 7.9 marks per dollar, a preliminary warning to the extreme postwar inflation.
The term normally refers to the raising of the exchange rate of one national currency against other currencies.
By November 1923, the currency had so degraded that it took 200 billion marks to buy a loaf of bread, Pictured: A man carrying a wheelbarrow full of cash, which effectively became people's wallets due to hyperinflation in 1923, Loadsamoney: Cash being transported in carts to pay salaries due to extreme hyperinflation in Weimar Germany in the aftermath of the First World War, Trump predicts election victory: 'We are going to win everything', 'I'm voting for Joe Biden': Lady Gaga backs Biden for President, Kamala Harris explains the 'equality of outcome' in Twitter video, Humpback whale almost swallows kayakers near Avila Beach, The moment a wild squirrel waits politely for its morning peanut, Experts find and capture hornets as they clear them out of nest, Caravan of Trump supporter trucks wait along Texas highway, Amazing moment diver is confronted by a wall or sharks, Workers build massive fence around White House for election night, Immigrants appear to climb ladder over US-Mexico border wall, Moment Tesco shoppers shove each other over reduced aisle, Mass brawl erupts at car meet in raw over 'whose car is fastest'. From a bird’s eye comparative perspective, Germany’s financial policies during the war do not look so different from those of the Entente. When the president of the Reichsbank, Rudolf Havenstein, died on November 20, 1923, Schacht was appointed to replace him. Yet, as numerous historians have pointed out, inflation after the war could have been managed had the international climate been less acrimonious, the burden of reparations less severe, or the German leaders not pursued a policy of non-fulfillment. Right: A man uses banknotes as wallpaper, more affordable than actual wallpaper in 1923, A one billion mark note in 1923. Rising military expenditures before 1914 thus brought higher tariffs and prices for consumer goods, making taxation an explosive political issue. The federal states resisted new direct taxes, and the Social Democrats opposed new indirect taxes on consumer goods. In the two decades before 1914, contemporaries both inside and outside of Germany believed the Wilhelmine Empire was poorly prepared to finance a major war.
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