how to balance output voltage in rotary phase converter

Figure 5 A set may be needed because if more than about 50 microfarads are needed, two or more separate capacitors must be connected in parallel to obtain the desired value. The self starting phase converter uses the same set of oil filled capacitors for both starting and as run capacitors. In fact, most 3-phase systems will accept a wide range of voltage, from around 200 volts to over 240 volts between phases. When no 3-phase motors were operating and only the idler was running, the single phase current without run capacitors was 14.8 amperes and with the run capacitors it was only 4.4 amperes as shown by the triangles in figure 6.

If the idler motor is 1 horsepower or less the more expensive oil filled type used for run capacitors can also be used because the small size is not too expensive. When purchasing capacitors, be certain you are getting capacitors intended for this use! The self starting phase converter uses capacitance between only one phase (1-3) instead of using 2 sets as recommended here. Right now he is retired and would like to share his knowledge and passion for electronics with a larger crowd. Many of these have fuses as part of the switch and are referred to as fused disconnects.

So even if I only changed a capacitor on leg three (generated leg) it would somehow effect when I measured across 1 and 2. These are connected to terminals 1 and 2 of the idler motor, respectively.

The tech asked me to check my line voltages across L1-L2,   L-2 – L3, and L1-L3. That being said, some typical wire sizes, overload, and short circuit protection methods will be described to get you started. 1/2 HP lathe motor turning spindle only. 1R-1 and 1R-2 are the main contacts for the magnetic contactor (power relay.) I’d like to add two smaller capacitors to lines 2 and 3 and then I would be balanced and still in overall correct required Voltage for the CNC lathe. Tables 5 and 6 show the voltages with various capacitance for a 5 HP and a 3 HP phase converter, respectively. Transform your product pages with embeddable schematic, simulation, and 3D content modules while providing interactive user experiences for your customers. If the motor has oil cups it is a sleeve type bearing, if it has grease fittings or no fittings at all it is a ball bearing type.

During the current balancing tests the 3 phase motor was only turning the spindle on the lathe, no metal was being cut. The oil filled type must be used. A disconnect switch is required by most local electrical codes for each piece of equipment. You are using the information provided at your own risk which includes, but is not limited to, maintenance or repair, operation, installation, and safety precautions.

The phase converters tested here were wye (star) wound. This is how voltage or phase imbalance reduces the motor’s HP rating: Phase imbalance also significantly reduces the life of 3-phase motors and greatly impacts thier performance. I know you don’t measure to ground with three phase, but I was trying to figure out which leg needed more or less voltage. More than one motor at a time can be operated and each running motor will act as a phase converter for the others so the total horsepower running can be 2 to 3 times the idler motor horsepower. That is a sign that the insulation inside the motor is defective. The other two lines are left untouched. How to Build an Auto-Start Rotary Three Phase Converter, This div height required for enabling the sticky sidebar, Brazing copper and copper alloys When to use it and how to do it, BRIDGEPORT MILLING MACHINE “J” HEAD SERIAL NUMBERS, How I Made My Own Plasma Cutter From Junk. Are Tail Lights and Brake Lights the Same Bulb. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Digital Rotary Phase Converters (CNC compatible) solve this problem by adding a digital controller that provides a voltage balance within a 2-5% range under 50-60% of the full load. The idler motor terminals are labeled T1, T2, and T3. For the simplest converter, without a separate start circuit, using 25-30 microfarads per idler horsepower between one of the input lines and the third (generated) line will provide an acceptable phase converter. Figure 4, The effect of the run capacitors on voltage and current in the 3 phase lines is shown in figure 3 and figure 4.
This provides a low resistance path for the electricity to flow instead of going through your body to earth ground. The biggest problem with Rotary Phase Converters is that if it is not properly balanced with capacitors, it will produce rough power that could damage your equipment (a common situation, especially for DIY fans). The overloads are part of a thermal overload relay with a normally closed contact labeled OL-1. Table 3 shows the current balance using various run capacitors. My question is about the power supply though. A rotary phase converter produces a three phase voltage identical to its input voltage. Figure 6.

This safety ground normally does not conduct any electricity. To a first approximation, the voltage shift due to connecting a capacitor, should be proportional to the capacitance. The oil filled type will not loose capacitance over the years and therefore can be purchased used or surplus. Check the motor nameplate, if for voltage it lists 220/440 then it can be wired one way for 220 volts and another way for 440 volts. I’d like to get it closer yet, but can’t figure out  exactly what size capacitor(s) I need. The disconnect switch (or plug) separates all current carrying conductors from the line voltage. The design recommended here does not have this limitation since the start capacitor is only engaged when the operator pushes the start button. Table 3. A phase converter lets you convert single-phase power into 3-phase power, and there are 3 types of converters: rotary, static, and digital rotary. The reasons that the electric power is not perfect are very technical and can include small amounts of voltage and current imbalance as well as the phase angles between phases not being perfect. The tech asked me to check my line voltages across L1-L2, L-2 – L3, and L1-L3. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});
. It would seem straightforward enough, but adding to any leg would also add or take away from another leg and screw up the balance.
After going through the converter, they will remain at the same voltage and will still be 180 degrees out of phase from each other. This idler was best balanced with 80 microfarads between lines 1-3 and 60 microfarads between lines 2-3, although 70 microfarads between each was only slightly worse.

For many shops the small amount of unbalance is acceptable and most commercial rotary phase converters are the self starting type. After quite a bit of trial and error and by removing 2 on line one, 1 on line 2, and 2 on line three (generated line)  I was able to balance the system this far. The output is custom balanced to meet the requirements of CNC equipment as well as other loads. A new 50 microfarad run capacitor might cost $50 while used or surplus only $7.

Many motors have more than 3 leads so that it can be wired for more than one voltage. Many capacitors intended for electronics applications have adequate voltage ratings, but cannot handle the AC current your application requires.

Table 2 can be used for guidance and is based on copper wire. *If your power rating is different than horsepower (HP), use the below calculations (or see video below) to find the proper HP rating to input into the Phase Converter […] Thus torque equals the weight of the rock times the radius of the shaft.

The idler is shut off by pressing the stop button which opens the circuit to the coil causing the contactor to open. For additional sizing assistance call 1-888-743-6832.

Sorry for delayed reply. The inexpensive electrolytic type can be used. Check the motor nameplate, if it does not say built-in overload protection, then it must be supplied separately. Traditional phase converters create only the 3rd line. In either case, as a side benefit, the single phase current draw which includes both the phase converter and the load motor power consumption will also be reduced dramatically as shown in figure 6. A 220- 250 VAC, 270-324 microfarad start capacitor sells new for about $15. Do you know where I can find it?

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